Safe siting, lighting and management of a campfire and the surrounding area and how this can be taught to learners.
Bedrock and soil type?
The Singapore tropical weather is hot and wet, with plenty of rain. The soil is usually wet, so any fire has to be done on an elevated platform. The bedrock is solid, with no potholes or sink spots. However, with a high decomposition rate, the insects and decomposers swarm most of the land available for fire starting.
Avoid wind facing towards residential areas. Singapore forests are pretty thick, the wind hardly gets into the area inside. As Singapore is at a lower sea level, with hardly much strong winds, wind direction is hardly an issue.
Health and safety of the group?
Ensure that the group doesn’t face the direction where the smoke is moving. Boundaries around the fireplace have to be made, using rocks and wood logs found around the vicinity. Indicate the safe distance to manoeuvre around the fire.
Bring big bottles of water, and a good amount of sand and soil, to douse the flame when needed. Most of the woodlands in Singapore do not have natural water sources, so it will be difficult to get water, but the campfire will be situated near places with water (urban shops) to ensure that access to water is available when needed.
Size of Fire?
Size of fire will be managed by one volunteer or facilitator, to ensure that the flame does not get too big. We can also manage the fire by using smaller wood sticks and logs.