Demonstrate safe siting, lighting and management of a campfire and the surrounding area and explain how this can be taught to learners.
Safe siting, lighting and management of a campfire and the surrounding area are shown in “FSES: Setting the Flame Together” and “Forest School Handbook” (In Future)
Factors affecting site for a fire
Bedrock and soil type? The Singapore tropical weather is hot and wet, with plenty of rain. The soil is usually wet, so any fire has to be done on elevated platform. The bedrock are solid, with no potholes or sink spots. However, with high decomposition rate, the insects and decomposer swarm most part of any land available for fire starting.
Wind direction? Avoid wind facing towards residential area. Singapore forest are pretty thick, wind hardly gets into the area inside. As Singapore is at a lower sea level, with hardly much strong winds, so wind direction is hardly an issue.
Health and safety of the group? Ensure that the group doesn’t face the direction where the smoke is moving. Boundaries around the fire place have to be made, using rocks and wood logs found around the vicinity. Indicate the safe distance to manoeuvre around the fire.
Water availability? Bring big bottles of water, and good amount of sand and soil, to douse the flame when needed. Most of the woodlands in Singapore does not have natural water sources, so it will be difficult to get water, but the campfire will be situated near places with water (urban shop) to ensure that access to water are available when needed.
Size of Fire? Size of fire will be manage by one volunteer or facilitator, to ensure that the flame does not get too big. We can also manage the fire by using smaller wood stick and logs.